How to get ready for the Geography Bee

Geography Bee

The official National Geographic Bee started in 1989, a time when the world was changing rapidly. Today, over ten thousand schools—12% of the nation’s total—and approximately four million students participate.[1] With such stiff competition, the eventual winner will have to be prepared!

Gather your materials. You will need a world map, an atlas, a geography textbook, and blank map outlines to practice labeling. There are also books dedicated to succeeding in the bee itself. Make sure that all of your materials are up to date.

  • Since many people no longer rely on maps to get where they need to go, reading and understanding one may not come naturally to you. Make sure you know what you are looking at, how different features are represented, and what the map can tell you.
Understand that geography is a broad field and that you will need to know about much more than the Earth’s physical features. At its core, it is about people, the places they live, and how these people and places affect each other. To succeed in the bee, you need to learn as much as possible about how culture, society, and politics have evolved across the globe. Geographers have developed different categories for doing this.[2]
  • Physical geography describes the Earth’s physical landscape, including its seasons, climate, soil, water, and land. It also takes into account how human have changed these systems. Climatology, for instance, is a part of physical geography that looks at both the natural world and human behavior.
  • Human geography is even more interested in humans both affect and are affected by location. It explores where people live and why, as well as how people’s behavior affects those living both around them and across the globe. It also focuses on how beliefs and behaviors travel from one area to another.
  • Geographic techniques involve different ways of describing and representing the Earth’s landscape and processes. Cartography (map making) has long been an important geographic technique, but today the field also involves data culled from satellites and analyzed by sophisticated computer programs.
  • Regional geography involves characteristics of the other categories, but its practitioners focus their attention on a specific region. A regional geographer will use different geographic techniques to study the landscapes and people of their chosen region, be it a continent or a city.

 

Pay attention to the news. Although the earth’s features usually change slowly, national borders, international relations, and scientific knowledge can change very rapidly—sometimes overnight. Know that any of these developments are fair game in the bee.

  • Newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet are all good sources for news, but make sure your sources are reliable. Consume a wide variety of sources to make sure you are getting the most comprehensive picture possible.

Learn from previous years’ competitions. This will help you learn the kinds of questions to expect and where to focus your studying.

  • Talk to older students who participated in the bee. What was their most effective study habit? What do they wish they had done differently? Take their advice into consideration when planning your own preparation.
  • However, don’t think that you can just focus on the same subject areas as other people. Talking to them can give you a sense of the level of detail exam runners will be looking for, but not the content. You’re on your own for that!
  • Emulate previous years’ winners. 2015 winner Karan Menon has said that he studied for at least one or two hours per day. He also stressed the importance of using different kinds of sources and studying all aspects of geography, including current events.[3]
Involve friends and family. It will be up to you on test day, but that doesn’t mean you can’t get help along the way.
  • Recruit a parent or other adult to quiz you on bee questions. They will probably be learning something, too.
  • If you are studying with a group of friends, stage mock bees. Try to mimic the conditions of the bee as closely as possible. The friendly competition will give you practice answering questions under pressure.

Q & A: What kind of questions will the judges be asking me?

The questions change every year. Remember your capitals, bodies of water, mountain ranges, and mountains, as well as currencies and demographics.

What should I study for the geography bee?

Know the locations and facts about countries, cities, capital cities, continents and major bodies of water.

What if you study a lot, and lose the school bee?

That’s okay. A lot of people are going to study a lot, but only one person can win. Just do your best and accept it if you don’t win.

Where is the national geography bee located?

Washington DC, at the National Geographic headquarters.

*Source: Wikihow, 2019

Elementary GT Identification and Instructional Recommendation Processes

Today we continue posting information about gifted and talented identification at one of the largest school districts in the country (*Source MCPS publication):

During the second semester, all Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) grade 2 students will be screened as part of the Student Instructional Program Planning and Implementation (SIPPI) process.  Additionally, during the second semester, students in Grades 3, 4 and 5 who are new to MCPS are screened as part of the New Student Screening process; students who have been recommended for rescreening by parents or school staff in Grades 3, 4 and 5 are screened as part of the Rescreening process.  The elementary GT identification processes are designed to capture data about students’ strengths for gifted and talented designation and for instructional planning for the next school year. Regardless of the recommendations made, students’ strengths that are demonstrated through these processes and through students’ daily instructional performance will be supported and extended. Although students do not need to be formally identified as gifted and talented to receive enrichment and/or acceleration, this process allows schools
to look at a student’s profile more holistically. With support, effort, and good study skills, all children can excel academically.

At the end of the screening processes in June, parents are provided with a Parent Report that summarizes their student’s performance on the InView ™ cognitive assessment, instructional recommendations for the next school year; and gifted and talented identification designation.

What cognitive assessments are administered?

All Grade 2 Students:
Grade 2 students take all five subtests of the InView™ Level 1: Sequencing, Analogical Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Verbal Reasoning-Words and Verbal Reasoning-Context.

New Student Screening:
Grade 3, 4 and 5 students, who are new to MCPS, take all five subtests of the InView™ Level 1 (Grade 3) or InView Level 2 (Grades 4 and 5): Sequencing, Analogical Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Verbal Reasoning-Words and Verbal Reasoning-Context.

Rescreening:
Grade 3, 4 and 5 students can be re-assessed on all five subtests of the InView™ Level 1 (Grade 3) or InView Level 2 (Grades 4 and 5) if they did not meet benchmark on any subtest. Students are identified for rescreening by the local school committee or by parent request. Rescreening occurs during the school’s specified assessment dates.

What data are gathered in the elementary GT identification processes?

The elementary GT identification processes use data gathered from a variety of sources. Multiple sources of data allow for emerging strengths to be noted and nurtured. Students who demonstrate strengths across several of these areas can be recommended for gifted and talented identification.

Specific data sources include:
 Staff advocacy
 Teacher survey
 Parent Input form
 InView™ cognitive assessment data
 Classroom performance data in reading and mathematics

What does the cognitive assessment data mean?
Cognitive assessments measure developed, not innate, reasoning abilities. The InView™ cognitive assessment can help guide teachers to adapt  instruction and provide appropriate critical thinking learning
opportunities.

What do the InView™ scores mean?
InView™ scores are reported as age-normed national percentile scores. A score of 60 indicates that a student performed better than 60% of students of his/her age that took this assessment. For purposes of using the score as a factor in gifted and talented identification, MCPS considers a score of 80 or higher as one possible
indicator.

Sequencing
Students who show strength in sequencing comprehend a rule or principle implicit in a pattern or sequence of figures, letters, or numbers. These students can analyze the pattern established in a row of figures, letters, or numbers, then select the answer choice that would continue or complete the pattern.  Students demonstrating this strength should be given opportunities to infer, recognize special patterns  and progressions, and make sense of parts in relation to a whole. As this is a non-verbal assessment,  students may demonstrate this strength while still developing verbal and quantitative skills.

Analogical Reasoning
Students who show strength in analogical reasoning are able to recognize the nature of the relationship  between two items and select an answer that will produce a parallel relationship. These students should  be given opportunities across all content areas to build classification and problem solving skills. These  students should be given many opportunities to explain relationships and connections in their learning.

Quantitative Reasoning
Students who show strength in quantitative reasoning often have the ability to:
 Draw logical conclusions
 Identify arithmetic patterns
 Model complex relationships
 Infer relationships among data
 Apply deductive math reasoning
Students demonstrating strength in this area should have a math experience that routinely includes enrichment opportunities.

Verbal Reasoning – Words and Context
Students who show strength in verbal reasoning show potential in logic, inferencing and complex  reasoning. Students who perform well in this area do best when they are encouraged to talk and/or write about whatever it is they are learning. They should be provided opportunities for in-depth textual analysis  (i.e., interpreting symbolism and figurative language of stories) and writing.

How are decisions about instruction and gifted and talented identification made?
Each school convenes a diverse committee of professional school staff members to review all data gathered for each student. Committee members note strengths that have been demonstrated and make instructional recommendations for the next school year accordingly. Next, the committee reviews the data to make a gifted and talented designation for each student. Students not identified gifted and talented can be rescreened at
least one year after their initial screening when requested by parents or school staff.

Is previous identification as gifted and talented from another school district considered?
If a student has been given a “gifted and talented” designation in another school system, MCPS will accept that designation. The parent/guardian should submit the assessment data and gifted and talented designation
information to the local school. It will be requested that these students still participate in the MCPS’ screening  process(es) described above so schools may gather additional data to inform instructional decisions.

What’s the InView™ Test?

In many school districts January is the month of gifted testing!  Let’s talk about the InView™ Test.

The InView™ Test is a cognitive abilities aptitude test that aims to measure cognitive skills and abilities that are essential for academic success.  It is frequently used as an entrance exam for gifted and talented programs throughout the United States.

Currently, all second graders (and new students) in Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Montgomery County, Maryland take the Inview Test  to be screened for the gifted and talented  programs in elementary schools. School districts in North Carolina, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin,  and Wyoming also use the Inview test to assess 2nd graders (and in some school districts  5th graders) for gifted and talented programs.

The Inview Test Format

The Terra Nova Inview Test has been designed to assess students in grades 2-12.   While many of the placement tests such as the SCAT, CogAT, OLSAT tests are computerized, the Inview test is a  paper and pencil test.   The test is divided in to five  sections: sequences, analogies, quantitative reasoning, verbal reasoning-words, and verbal reasoning-context.

The Inview Test Difficulty Levels are as follows:

  • Level 1: Grades 2-3
  • Level 2: Grades 4-5
  • Level 3: Grades 6-7
  • Level 4: Grades 8-9
  • Level 5: Grades 10-11
  • Level 6: Grades 11-12

Typically, for a gifted and talented placement test students are offered a test with a difficulty level one grade ahead of their current grade.  So for example 2nd graders will be offered a Level 1, and 3rd graders a Level 2 test.

The Inview Test Content

The test assesses students in verbal and nonverbal questions. The nonverbal sections are the sequences, analogies, and quantitative reasoning sections.  Each section is approximately 20 questions long. All of the questions are multiple choice questions.

Sequences:  The sequence section contains sequences of  letters, numbers, shapes and/or figures.  The student must select the answer that logically completes the sequence. They are provided with four possible answer choices.

Analogies: This section aims to test the concept of analogies in a non-verbal format.  The question will contain  a table with two rows of images. The first pair of images will have a specific logical relationship. The student will need to determine the relationship between the first pair of images and then choose the image that has the same logical relationship with the third image.

Quantitative Reasoning: For these questions, your child will need to understand basic numerical concepts like “more,” “less,” “most,” and “least.” She will then need to be able to apply this understanding to images and figures. For example, she may be asked to determine which of four grids has the most black area shaded.

The verbal score is comprised of the verbal reasoning-words and verbal reasoning-context sections.

Verbal Reasoning-Words: This question type measures the ability to understand relationships between words.

For example, your child may be given a list of words like the following: “Cool, cold, freezing,” followed by, “Warm, ___, boiling.” Four choices would then be provided to fill in the blank, with the correct choice being “hot.”

Verbal Reasoning-Context: These questions involve the ability to make logical inferences based on provided information.

For example, your child may be given two statements such as, “Alice likes all of her teachers. Mrs. Lee is Alice’s teacher.” Based on these statements, your child would need to choose the most logical conclusion from a list of four choices. In this case, the correct answer would be, “Alice likes Mrs. Lee.”

InView Test Scores

After your child takes the TerraNova InView test, you will receive a score report with her NPA (percentile by age) and NPG (percentile by grade), both overall and for each individual section. Percentiles range from 1-99 and represent your child’s performance compared to a national sample of children in the same grade and of the same age. For example, if your child scores in the 90th percentile, she scored as well or higher than 90% of children in her age and/or grade group.

You will also receive a CSI (Cognitive Skills Index) that provides a measurement of your child’s overall academic aptitude, based on the cognitive skills assessed with this test. The CSI has a ceiling of 141, a mean of 100, and a standard deviation of 16. Typically, a child is considered “gifted” if she scores a 132 or higher.

The TerraNova InView test scores that qualify for admission to gifted programs vary by school district. In many cases, your child will be required to score in the 97th percentile overall. However, it is always best to call your district and ask about qualifying test scores in order to know for sure.

In many cases, the TerraNova InView test is administered as a component of the TerraNova 3rd Edition, an achievement test that measures abilities in core academic subjects. If this is the case, your child will receive an Anticipated Score and an Achievement Score. The Anticipated Score is an average of what a student with your child’s age, grade, and ability level should be expected to achieve. The Achievement Score is your child’s actual performance on the test.

Comparing the Anticipated Score and Achievement Score can give you an idea of whether or not your child is reaching her full potential academically. If the two scores are close, your child is making expected progress. Scores that are significantly different from expected are indicated with “above” or “below” on the score report.

Benefits of the TerraNova InView Test

The TerraNova InView Test provides an accurate and reliable measurement of deductive, inductive, and quantitative reasoning abilities, all of which are crucial to academic achievement. For this reason, it gives teachers, parents, and schools insightful information about student skills that can be a valid predictor of the student’s academic capability and success. It is a useful tool to identify students for placement in the most appropriate learning group.

How to Succeed on TerraNova InView Test

Assessments such as this one are meant to be resistant to preparation, but you can still help familiarize your child with the question types and build her confidence. Work on practice questions related to analogies, sequences, basic math concepts, word relationships, and inferences. Work test concepts like “more” and “less” into everyday conversation, or give your child a pair of words and ask her to determine how they are related.

Most importantly, remind your child that one test cannot fully measure her abilities and certainly not her worth as a person. Text anxiety can overwhelm children on test day and dramatically impact both their stress levels and their scores. Help your child feel prepared and confident about the test without putting too much pressure on her.

Hopefully we’ve answered all of your questions about the TerraNova Inview test. Begin practicing about two months prior to the test to give your child the best chance of success and, if applicable, admittance to your district’s gifted program.

We designed the Smarty Buddy App and Smarty Buddy Inview Books to help kids get familiar with test format.  Let’s face it, sometimes an unfamiliar test question in a stressful test situation that 2nd graders are not used to can really ruin a child’s performance!  Every child deserves to be offered a spot in the most advanced programs.  The pacements tests are a subjective determination created by a school system administrator.  We as parents and educators believe in offering parents and their children the opportunity to learn about the test format and have a positive test taking experience!

The Smarty Buddy App was designed based on the types of questions a child might encounter on the Inview and similar gifted placement tests.

Smarty Buddy App
Smarty Buddy App

The full version game features 3 grade levels, 5 test topics, and 3 levels of difficulty. With over 670 questions to play, this fun game can complement or replace any worksheet test preparation. Now on all App Stores!

Test Topics: Number Sequences, Picture Sequences, Picture Analogies, Quantitative and Number Puzzles

Features: Positive reinforcement through game badges; progress reports for parents.

The Smarty Buddy CogAT Practice Book is a workbook designed to give any child the opportunity to get familiar with CogAT question format.  For a hands on approach of testing at home with mom and dad – try practicing with our workbooks and apps.  Your child will feel more confident on test day, and you will feel assured that you provided the best educational resource  for your child to get ahead!

Check out our products on Amazon and All App Stores!

Good Luck and your opinion is very important to us! Leave us a review!

Elementary school aged kids:

  1. Smarty Buddy Inview Practice – Level 1 
  2. Smarty Buddy Inview Practice – Level 2
  3. Smarty Buddy CoGAT Practice
  4. Smarty Buddy SCAT  Practice
  5. Smarty Buddy Gifted and Talented Test  Practice
  6. Smarty Buddy App on Ios, Kindle, Android
  7. Smarty Buddy Multiplication App on IOS, Kindle, Android
  8. Smarty Buddy Division App on IOS, Kindle, Android
  9. Smarty Buddy Grade 1 Math App on IOS, Kindle, Android

Pre-school aged kids:

  1. Smarty Buddy My First Analogies

SCAT practice test ebook

Lot’s of activity on our blog by parents looking for SCAT Test information and sample questions.  Here’s a new ebook that just came out on Amazon – in our opinion one of the cheapest full length tests out there:

SCAT® Test Prep: School and College Ability Tests – Elementary Series

We believe that a child should have an understanding of what is expected of him or her on a test.  So for all the parents out there we can’t stress enough to just get all the information that you can get about your GAT test and give your child a chance to review the test format.   Usually workbooks are the best practice materials.  But most tests are actually administered on the computer.  So an e-book workbook might be a great option for practicing test questions.

Please see the sample questions offered on Amazon book preview.

Sample SCAT Test analogy practice questions

Analogies are a common test topic on many standardized placement tests.  And it turns out that analogies are not  just found in the SAT and ACT tests.  Your child will be tested on the topic of analogies as early as elementary school or even pre-school, if you are preparing for a kindergarten placement program.   It is never too early to get your child acquainted with analogies.  Try out these sample analogy questions, and check out some of the books available from our authors.

1.       blue : sky ::

A.    green :grass

B.    pink : color

C.    cat : pet

D.    cane : walk 

2.    straw : drink ::

A.    food : kitchen

B.    spoon : eat

C.    fork : knife

D.    ear : music  

3.    morning : breakfast ::

A.    juice : milk

B.    coat : hat

C.    evening : dinner

D.    lunch : taco

 4.    brother : boy ::

A.    family : happy

B.    sister : girl

C.    people : planet

D.    glasses : face  

5.    apple : fruit ::

A.    carrot : vegetable

B.    cloud : rain

C.    cold : hot

D.    strawberry : red  

6.    bird : feather ::

A.    finger : hand

B.    coat : hanger

C.    fish : scale

D.    man : face  

7.    large : small ::

A.    truck : bus

B.    coat : thread

C.    boat : water

D.    full : empty  

8.    all : none ::

A.    many : few

B.    one : two

C.    letter : number

D.    all : many  

9.    open : closed ::

A.    awake : asleep

B.    silly : smart

C.    sad : depressed

D.    happy : smile  

10.          bright : dark ::

A.    open : lid

B.    warm : hot

C.    rich : poor

D.    sky : sun

 

SCAT Test

A lot of the parents are starting to search the internet for any information that would help them decipher the test results that are hitting the mail.  Today’s post is dedicated to the SCAT test.  SCAT is used by the John Hopkins Center for the Talented Youth to screen applicants for the GAT offerings.

CTY uses three levels of the SCAT.  Below is the information on understanding your child’s score and how it compares to the peer population.

Students in grades 2-3 take the Elementary SCAT designed for students in grades 4-5.
Students in grades 4-5 take the Intermediate SCAT designed for students in grades 6-8.
Students in grades 6 and above take the Advanced SCAT designed for students in grades 9-12.

Because this is an above-grade-level test, after the test, you’ll receive information that shows how your child’s score compares to that of students in the higher grades for whom the test questions were originally designed.

SCAT Scaled Scores range from 401 to 514 depending on the level the student takes. Here are the ranges:

Elementary Level
Verbal Range = 401-471
Quantitative Range = 412-475

Intermediate Level
Verbal Range = 405-482
Quantitative Range = 419-506

Advanced Level
Verbal Range = 410-494
Quantitative Range = 424-514

This scaled score is based on the number of questions the student answers correctly out of the 50 scored questions in each section.

SCAT percentiles are used to compare students to the older population to whom the student will be compared. For example, Grade 2 students are compared to a general population of 4th graders and so on, as detailed below.

Grade 2 is compared to Grade 4
Grade 3 to Grade 5
Grade 4 to Grade 6
Grade 5 to Grade 8
Grade 6 to Grade 9
Grade 7 to Grade 12
Grade 8 to Grade 12

Check out Smarty Buddy SCAT Workbook on Amazon and the accompanying Smarty Buddy App.

Smarty Buddy SCAT Practice
Smarty Buddy SCAT Practice

Check out our App Demo for some of the questions in the Sequences Test:

Get your child ready for SCAT Test!!!

Smarty Buddy on Apple Itunes

Smarty Buddy on Google Play

Smarty Buddy on Kindle Devices

Inview Test Sample Problems

INVIEW ASSESSMENT

The InView is an assessment which measures the skills and abilities most directly related to academic success.  A reliable Cognitive Skills Index (CSI) is derived from five sub-tests that assess the following cognitive areas:

  • Verbal Reasoning—Words
  • Verbal Reasoning—Context
  • Sequences
  • Analogies
  • Quantitative Reasoning

The tests present students with questions that assess skills such as understanding verbal and quantitative concepts and analyzing and comprehending relationships between verbal and nonverbal stimuli.  The InView was standardized to include students with disabilities and to provide age- and grade-appropriate normative data.

Sample Test Questions

Verbal Reasoning—Words Sample

InView1

Verbal Reasoning—Context Sample

InView 2

Sequences Sample

InView 3

Analogies Sample

4

Quantitative Reasoning Sample

5

Need more practice? Check out the Smarty Buddy Inview Workbooks on Amazon and Smarty Buddy App on all App Stores!

Check out our App Demo for some of the questions in the Sequences Test:

Get your child ready for Inview!!!

Smarty Buddy on Apple Itunes

Smarty Buddy on Google Play

Smarty Buddy on Kindle Devices

Sale on Math Analogies on Amazon!

Just in time for CoGAT and SCAT testing season, we’ve discount our new  Math Analogies Workbook on Amazon!

If you are just starting out learning about the gifted and talented test process, our math analogies workbook is a fun resource to start honing your child’s cognitive skills.

Smarty Buddy Math Analogies
Smarty Buddy Math Analogies

CoGAT Test Prep or Practice with Smarty Buddy

All children are gifted and talented.   Not all kids fit into the standards that school systems and educational institutions deem as the cutoff for gifted and talented designation. Every child deserves to be offered the most challenging material in school to progress in his or her understanding of the world.

After going through different learning programs and test preparation books, we decided to assemble the materials that helped our own kids succeed.   We hope that our apps and test preparation books help every child feel confident on test day and every parent feel content that they offered the best learning resources to their kid(s).

Smarty Buddy App
Smarty Buddy App

The Smarty Buddy App was designed based on the types of questions a child might encounter on the CogAT®, InView™, SCAT®,  and similar gifted placement tests.

Smarty Buddy App features 3 grade difficulty levels:

  • pre-K-K
  • 1-2 grade
  • 3-5 grade

 Smarty Buddy App features 5 types of test topics similar in format to the questions asked on the leading gifted and talented placement tests:

  • Number Sequences
  • Picture Sequences
  • Picture Analogies
  • Quantitative
  • Number Puzzles

Within each topic Smarty Buddy App features 3 levels of difficulty.

Smarty Buddy App Topics
Smarty Buddy App Topics

With over 670 questions to play, this fun game can complement or replace any worksheet test preparation.  Grab the game to squeeze in test practice on the road or on the plane.  

Check out our App Demo for some of the questions in the Sequences Test:

Get your child ready for CoGAT!!!

Smarty Buddy on Apple Itunes

Smarty Buddy on Google Play

Smarty Buddy on Kindle Devices

What’s the CogAT Test?

The Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) is a group-administered K–12 assessment intended to estimate students’ learned reasoning and problem solving abilities through a battery of verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal test items. The test purports to assess students’ acquired reasoning abilities while also predicting achievement scores when administered with the co-normed Iowa Tests. The author of the test is David F. Lohman, professor emeritus at the University of Iowa. *

The CogAT is one of several tests used in the United States to help school systems make student placement decisions for gifted education programs.*

The most recent (seventh) edition of the CogAT was designed to be appropriate for non-native English speakers, and independent reviews indicate that the test’s creators have been mostly successful in this. *

The Batteries or Test sections are as follows:

Battery Subtests
Verbal Picture/Verbal Analogies
Sentence Completion
Picture/Verbal Classification
Quantitative Number Analogies
Number Series
Number Puzzles
Nonverbal Figure Matrices
Figure Classification
Paper Folding

 

Here’s a nice summary of the types of questions a child in elementary school might encounter on test day:  (CogAT Test Levels 5 – 8)

COGAT Test Types of Questions

The Smarty Buddy App was designed based on the types of questions a child might encounter on the CogAT and similar gifted placement tests.

Smarty Buddy App
Smarty Buddy App

The full version game features 3 grade levels, 5 test topics, and 3 levels of difficulty. With over 670 questions to play, this fun game can complement or replace any worksheet test preparation. Now on all App Stores!

Test Topics: Number Sequences, Picture Sequences, Picture Analogies, Quantitative and Number Puzzles

Features: Positive reinforcement through game badges; progress reports for parents.

The Smarty Buddy CogAT Practice Book is a workbook designed to give any child the opportunity to get familiar with CogAT question format.  For a hands on approach of testing at home with mom and dad – try practicing with our workbooks and apps.  Your child will feel more confident on test day, and you will feel assured that you provided the best educational resource  for your child to get ahead!

*(Source: Wikipedia)  

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